Physical Development Plans
Physical planning is a process of influencing, controlling or directing changes (or non change) in the use of Land and the allocation of land over time and space. Allocation in this case refers determining the site and size of Land for particular use; it has nothing to do with granting rights of ownership or occupation.
Appropriation of natural resources is vital in creating a strong economy of every country. Land being limited resource, calls for prudent use. Physical organisation of various activities, not only promote economic growth but is necessary for creating harmony within the society by reducing conflicts, increasing safety, conservation and maintaining historical values. The need for physical planning is important due to:
- The need to accommodate private sector
- Provision of facilities
- Efficiency in circulation
- Ecological and Environmental sustainability
- To reduce social crisis
The government is taking hands off from controlling the national economy consequent public sector is dwindling and more investment is now from private sector which calls for participatory planning approach. Planning is necessary in order to avoid conflict and raise land values.
Change from state controlled economy to free market economy system means that investment should be guide by economic profit rather than social and environmental benefits. The market can not provide effective solutions to various infrastructure needs and other social services. Integrated planning therefore is necessary in order to provide important services such as roads, transportation terminals, sewerage, water supply, open spaces, cemeteries etc.
Movement of goods and people are major components of human life. There should be a good relationship between different land uses (eg residential - to work places). There should be a spatial coordination in order to reduce public expenditure, commuting costs in monetary and time aspect and to effect a better urban environment, save lives in case of accidents and disasters.
Through physical planning it is possible to integrate development (existing and new) of large scale system with the development of local ecological system.
Physical planning is essential in order to create equity within the society by making land available.
Factors influencing Planning
- Government policies
- Municipal/ District councils Self-governance
- Social environment
The manner in which physical planning is conducted depend on the country's political system and divisions of responsibilities. Politics commands the widest influence in physical planning.
There is increase in international competition in search for places with favourable conditions for investment. Urban areas should be planned in a manner that qualifies them for the contest in global investment attraction.
Environmental issues depend on the local authorities' commitment to address them. Urban authorities therefore need physical plans to solve some of the problems. Thus the nature of the problem influences the approaches in planning.
Social environment has influence on the way planning is carried out. The need to preserve culture, for example may affect the way decision on allocating a site for tourist hotel.